Saturday, March 14, 2020
Essay Leighton Holdings Entry to China Essay Leighton Holdings Entry to China Table of Contents 1. Executive Summary 2 2. Introduction 3 3. Background 4 3.1 Environmental Sustainability 4 3.2 Competitiveness of Chinese construction industry 5 3.3 Relationship-Based Business Culture 5 3.4 Insufficient Law and Regulation 6 4. Discussion of the Issues 7 4.1 Chinese Cultures 7 4.2 Cultural Impacts 8 4.3 Sustainable Development 8 5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations 9 6.0 Reference 11 1. Executive Summary It is in the best interest for Leighton Holdings to understand the Chinese cultures to avoid missing any business opportunities in China. In the recent years, the construction industry has been playing a leading role in the Chinese rapid economic development. The increase in economic activity has resulted in a heavy demand for construction, providing Leighton Holdings a good opportunity to expand its construction business in China. However, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s incomplete regulatory system, cultural differences, as well as a relationship-based business culture were among the factors identified as making China a challenging project environment. This is due to the national culture of Confucius, which affects the way the Chinese people doing business. Some of the salient principles of Confucius are highlighted below: * Submitting to authority; * Respecting the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"big familyÃ¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"middle wayÃ¢â¬ to preserve harmony in one community; and * Maintaining harmonious relationships with neighbours. Based on the identified issues, some recommendations are provided for Leighton Holdings to expand its business in China: * Make the right connections in China and hold implementation plan workshops and follow-up sessions with Chinese team members to establish and maintain trust and respect at the start of the project; * Develop a clear and appropriate plan and well defined a projectÃ¢â¬â¢s scope and design before agreements or contracts are signed to avoid cultural misunderstanding or future disputes; * Employ people who have educational and working experience in both Australia and China to be the communication channel; * Establish price competitiveness by sourcing environmental-friendly resources globally to meet the Chinese demand for sustainable construction; * Cooperate with international association such as World Trade Organization and Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation to lobby the Chinese government for policy changes and to call for the transparency during the bidding proces s. 2. Introduction Leighton Holdings is one of AustralianÃ¢â¬â¢s largest construction firms and one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest contract mining companies. It operates with a number of subsidiaries in Australia including Thiess, John Holland Group and Leighton International, providing a wide range of construction operations in heavy industry, engineering and commercial construction (IBISWorld, 2013). With the goal of being renowned for excellence across the construction, mining, and operations and maintenance markets, Leighton Holdings is committed to the achievement of high quality standards, and strives for integrating environmental, social and governance factors into decision making to create short and long term shareholder value, pursuing sustainability of its business (Leighton Holdings, 2013 a; Leighton Holdings, 2013 c; Leighton Holdings, 2013 d). In recent years, the rapid increase of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population, in addition to the expansion in global economic activity and falling trade barriers, has led to massive increases in demand for construction around the world, especially in Asia where large amounts of social commercial infrastructure are being developed (Ochieng, Price Moore, 2013). According to the Global Construction Report (2011), China surpassed Japan as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest construction market in 2003, and it will overtake the US as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest construction sector in 2018. These indicate a great opportunity for Leighton Holdings to export its construction
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Toxicology, Drugs and Poisons - Essay Example The acidic poisons and drugs can easily be isolated from the acidic solution while the basic drugs and poisons are easily extracted from the basic solution. After completing the procedure, the poison and drugs are isolated, the isolated samples are then screened and confirmed thereafter. Other techniques that are discussed in the paper include color testing, immunoassay testing, gas chromatography and microcrystalline testing. Determination of quality of drugs or poison is done through extraction and isolation of the substance from body fluids and tissues. The techniques used in identification include color testing, immunoassay testing, gas chromatography and microcrystalline testing. Color testing is a technique simply used in a determination of an individual content of drug or poison in the system. The technique mainly identifies the type of drug or poisons present in the person and do not indicate the quantity of the suspected substance in the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s body. Toxicologist always carries out confirmation test after color testing for surety (Flanagan, Perrett and Whelpton, 2005). When the test is done in a urine sample, a small strip used for the test is dipped in the urine sample and is expected to change to a specific color. In other tests, chemical substances are combined with a sample that is already isolated. Changes in color due to the reactions indicate the presence of certain drugs or p oison in the sample (Haley and Berndt, 2007). Microcrystalline testing involves combining a given amount of isolated sample with a specifically known chemical reagent. In the presence of a drug or poison, a chemical reaction will occur producing a precipitate. The precipitate structure and color varies with respect to the drug or poison that is tested. The precipitate that is formed can then be screened or viewed under a microscope for identity confirmation (Bell, 2009).
Monday, February 10, 2020
Popular Culture Media Representation and the Construction of Social Reality ( See questionsessay thesis below) - Essay Example Under this, again, we have sub-categories as well. Therefore, media diverges into various streams that operate under different conditions and specifications. And very evidently, each of them has a varied mode of consensus containment. The print media, which comes in the form of magazines, newspapers, journals and the like, operates on a more manual mode of obtaining consensus. They attempt to perhaps, try and attach importance to each individual's opinion, by resolving differences that might arise. For instance, they rely on public polls and even letters to the editor. The public can w rite in opinions and the media does try to present a consensus of the majority opinion, if not that of the entire masses. However, one major disadvantage of this media is the fact that in achieving consensus, it does omit those who have no access to reading material and the illiterate or uneducated. The broadcast media, consisting of television and radio, is more open to anyone who can voice their opinions. It need not have to be restricted to only the educated.
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The use of beauty in Disney movies Essay Growing up nowadays most children in the US are brought up watching mostly Walt Disney movies. The Millennial generation was raised with the Disney renaissance film era, and the newer Generation Z is also being raised with the classic Disney films and the newer films like Tangled and The Princess and the Frog. As kids grow up, they begin to relate many of the stories and characters that they were so fond of to everyday things, whether it is their toys or Halloween costumes. Along with this is a clear placed biased view on behalf of the Disney corporation that most of the characters that are physically attractive or appealing to look at are going to be the Ã¢â¬Å"good guysÃ¢â¬ , while the less attractive characters are typically the Ã¢â¬Å"bad guysÃ¢â¬ . With this influence over children, it has led to greater stereotyping, body image problems, an ageism debate, and created greed to want to have Disney related memorabilia. These animated children/family based films have caused more controversy than ever expected. In the majority of the Disney films with the main exceptions of The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Beauty and the Beast, there is a clear and definite difference between good and evil within the characters simply by their appearances. In 2010, the University of North Carolina and Appalachian State University carried out a study analyzing twenty-one Disney films made since 1938, and asked the participants to rate 163 characters on a scale of one to ten in terms of Ã¢â¬Å"goodnessÃ¢â¬ . They were asked to also score them on their attractiveness, intelligence, aggressiveness, romantic involvement, and their life outcome aka their Ã¢â¬Å"happily ever afterÃ¢â¬ (Leach). In almost every movie, the Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ characters were the more attractive, more intelligent and less aggressive. Some of the characters that exemplified these ideals were Cinderella, Prince Charming, Princess Aurora, and the Blue Fairy from Pinocchio. This study appeared in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology concluded that, Ã¢â¬Å"as ratings of beauty increased, so did ratings of friendliness, goodness, intelligence, favorability of the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s outcome, and romantic involvementÃ¢â¬ . (Leach) Using this study as reference, researchers then set out to determine how much the idea of beauty is good and ugly is bad, is based off of a specific film. Forty-two children between the ages of six to twelve were put in a different study and had them watch either Cinderella or The Hunchback of Notre Dame. Those two films have both characters that are beautiful and good natured, and also an unconventional hero that is less attractive to the eye. From that researchers then showed the children photographer of other children and were asked what they thought of that person from their looks, and whether they would want to ever to friends with them (Jacobs). Doris Bazzini, Lisa Curtin, Serena Joslin, Shilpa Regan and Denise Martz were the people behind this extensive project. Bazzini and her colleagues were able to conclude that it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter which film the child watched, their answers were all pretty consistent to each other. The researchers were able to pull that the children all had a greater desire to befriend or talk to an attractive peer, rated them as being more desirable to be friends with, less likely to get into any form of trouble, and were seen as being the better person compared to an unattractive peer. These thoughts were not just applied on human characters but also animal ones as well. (Jacobs) Bazzini stated in response to this project, Ã¢â¬Å"It may seem heartening to many parents that a single movie viewing did not induce greater use of the beauty is good stereotype. However, this may be due to the fact that the stereotype [has] inconsistent depictions of the low-beauty bias film are simply not potent enough to unravel a steadily developing propensity to judge attractiveness positively, especially when such stereotypes involve femalesÃ¢â¬ . The researchers then decided to suggest to parents that these movies should be used in aiding the parents as they teach them valuable life lessons in their young age rather than just letting them watch those movies with no dialogue about what they just watched. (Bazzini) Even though these films are animation and not live action, they have created these images of the human body which have led to people striving to look like people who do not exist in real life. The Disney characters are drawn to look and coincide with their roles within the movie; this has led to the Disney Princess Effect. The Walt Disney film corporation has rendered the female leads of their animated motion pictures as archetypes of the perfect female figure. (Travali) This gender/image construction in Disney films is so important because of the messages to sends to the main audience: children. The messages that these characters give to children are how to act, look, and interact with others. While this can be good, the looks part can lead to high expectations and lower realities. (May) The Disney animators have created the heroines to be perfect in their physique. Almost every Disney heroine has a perfect waistline, a perfectly proportioned face, skin tight or even revealing clothing, and those ever so desirable curves that make them wanted by the male characters, or their Prince Charming. These images have become a prime factor in teenage eating disorders and depression because just like Barbie dolls, these unrealistic perfect bodies cannot be actually attained in real life. (Travali) Young girls feel such pressure from the media to look like perfect Barbie dolls, and with the media Disney is a large part since the female heroines all have these perfect bodies. According to the South Carolina Department of Mental Health, anorexia is the third most common chronic illness among girls between the ages of 12 to 25. And even sadder is that the mortality rate associated with anorexia is twelve times higher than the average death rate for young girls for all causes of death. (Growing) Young girls buy outfits to look like their favorite Disney characters, whether it is for Halloween or to wear for fun, and they strive to look just like them. Even young boys feel the need to look like the heroes or Prince Charming, being physically fit and handsome. (Travali) These body image problems start at a young age thanks to the Disney franchise. A vast majority of children with body image problems start young with their exposure to Disney princesses and their perfect bodies, then over time as they see more media and media begins to mold their ideals for the perfect body. (B. P) This has negatively impacted the self-confidence of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth. Growing up on Disney films has created a stereotype of attractive ideals that most youth have come to expect from society and it often lowers their own confidence when they cannot look like the animated characters or cannot find their Ã¢â¬Å"Prince CharmingÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ . (B. P) The Disney Princess franchise has molded many youth throughout the years and never received criticism about ethnic diversity until recently. And even since The Princess and the Frog was released in 2009, there is still criticism about the lack of diversity or from the other end of the spectrum, the bias that an African American princess is not a true Disney Princess. (May) Tiana is much different from the other princesses as she is more independent and has future job orientated goals, but of course has the Disney wish for a prince charming. Tiana was the first new princess since the Disney renaissance of the 90s and the first since Mulan was released in 1998. Disney has tried to create Disney princesses that would reach out to a greater racial audience. Creating princesses like Mulan, Pocahontas, and Tiana, has shown how the Disney Corporation has branched out to fill ethnic diversity. (May) But the Disney franchise is never safe from criticism, they have called out for making the ethnic diverse characters carry too many of the stereotypical features that are associated with their races. From DumboÃ¢â¬â¢s crows to the ear cutting barbarians in Aladdin to the savages in Pocahontas, Disney combined racial stereotyping into their characters. (Bartyzel) Another cause of controversy within the Disney Princess franchise has been transforming old characters into newer, sexier ones. FigureÃ¢â¬â¢s One and Two show the changes that the corporation has implemented. Figure One shows the changes made to characters Mulan and Pocahontas, and Figure Two shows the most controversial change with Merida from the movie Brave. Merida from the movie Brave was a character specifically designed to challenge the Disney princess stereotype, but instead of sticking with this endured hero and her making the movie the eighth top grossing film of 2012, Disney decided to give her the Ã¢â¬Å"princess makeoverÃ¢â¬ and officially coronate her into a Disney Princess. The fiery, rebellious Scottish girl that audiences fell in love with was turned from her wild hair and conservative dress into a hardly recognizable character. Her hair was tamed, her breasts enlarged, a smaller waist, and a more form fitting and revealing dress was part of her becoming a certified Disney princess (Bartyzel). And from this transformation, Disney then decided to give all the princesses a new sexier makeover. In Figure One there is the original Mulan in the center top frame, and on either side of her is the new version. She has gone from a young Chinese woman to a girl with regular features, the only Asian aspects are that her skin is pale and the animators gave her Asian eyes. Pocahontas received lighter skin, an elongated face, larger eyes, and more makeup. But these changes did not go unnoticed by the public. In fact especially over Merida, there was a massive public outrage to the point that Disney released a statement that MeridaÃ¢â¬â¢s makeover was not an official redesign but more of a one-time thing to go with her coronation. Disney was not expecting such a public outcry to these changes and has even lightened MulanÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation having her wearing less makeup and the corporation has made no other references to doing any like that again (Bartyzel). Disney princesses can positively affect children in terms of mentality. Minus the body image problems, the more attractive characters are most of the time the bravest characters and great role models for children. While there are the negative aspects of these super attractive, unrealistic characters, they usually are the good guys and were actually transformed role models for the youth. (Klein) Princesses like Mulan, Merida, and Pocahontas are the heroes in their stories. Mulan showed young girls that they could have strength and protect their families and not be seen as the weaker sex. Merida showed girls that they did not have to conform to the princess ideals and instead be a fierce warrior. And Pocahontas showed there should be peace between people of other cultures and to take time to understand other customs that may be unfamiliar. (Bartyzel) The appearance of the characters affects children more so than adults. Studies about the attractiveness/unattractiveness of animated cartoon characters have shown that with a broad audience including children and adults, that the younger audience is more affected by the physical appearance of said characters in relation to their actions. (Klein) Beautiful people are more superior to those who are not. Psychologists in the early 1970s first thought that, Ã¢â¬Å"highly attractive people were smarter, more socially adept and generally superior to the rest of us, and they tend to live happier livesÃ¢â¬ (Jacobs). This harsh stereotype based on looks learned at an early age, impacts peer interaction. Kids begin to associate good looking people as being the good guys, and less attractive people as being the bad guys. The concept of judging a book by its cover. (Bazzini) Disney movies and the media go hand in hand with the ideals of beauty are good. While the media does not constantly showcase Ã¢â¬Å"beauty is goodÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"ugly is badÃ¢â¬ , in most advertisements, the idea is that sex sells. (Bazzini) The more attractive characters are happier and more apt to live Ã¢â¬Ëhappily ever afterÃ¢â¬â¢. This creates an ideal for youth that the more attractive they are, the more likely they are to find romance and have their own fairy tale endings. The more attractive a character is, the more likely they are to be loving. While there is a clear exception with this with Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and The Hunchback of Notre Dame, this is an accurate portrayal of most characters. (Klein) Research with kids has shown that they will lean more towards an attractive person. Consistent outcomes have shown that kids have Ã¢â¬Å"an overall greater desire to befriend an attractive peer, rate the child as more likely to be desired as a friend by other children, less likely to get into trouble and as nicer relative to an unattractive peerÃ¢â¬ (Jacobs). The beauty is good, ugly is bad stereotype is not only limited to the human animations. Studies show that kids even will view the cute, good animal like Flounder in Little Mermaid as the good guy rather than the big, bulky, mean Gantu in Lilo Stich. (Bazzini) The good is beauty and evil is ugly debate also brings ageism into light. In many Disney movies the older characters are portrayed as being more dependent on others or they are not present whatsoever in some films. (Jamieson) The media does not always support the less attractive characters, even if they are the good guys. DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s PixarÃ¢â¬â¢s film Up, was turned down by investors and toy manufacturers because the main character was a grumpy 78 year old man, who by media standards was not commercially attractive. (Jamieson) Disney portrays characters in a one dimensional manner, and leaving out older characters affects children. In a 2007 study at Brigham Young University at Provo, found that animations could be a leading cause to ageism. The persistent portrayal of elders could lead to children forming the wrong impression of their seniors. (Leach) From the study at Brigham Young University, it looked at 93 characters that appeared to be by definition elderly in 43 Disney films going from Snow White to The Lion King. While the majority of these characters were actually good guys in the movies, the more memorable characters were the bad guys. Characters like the Wicked Queen and Cruella de Vil have been accused of creating a negative image for older people as in numerous films they are the villains. Cruella de Vil is seen as one of DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s most evil character. She is ominous with an unhealthy and frightening interest in the puppies, and has an obsession with their fur in 101 Dalmatians. (Womack) While the movies have good stories of triumph and moral battles, it creates greed. Part of the Disney franchise is to make sure their merchandise sells, and mostly their film merchandise, the need for movie novelties creates greed with young kids. To need to have more and more. (Wynne-Jones) A clear example of this is Bibbidi Bobbidi Boutique at the Disneyland resorts, where girls can be transformed into princesses and boys into princes/knights. This shows the need to look like the film characters and the extremes that the parents will allow their children to go through by paying vast amounts of money to become Ã¢â¬Å"prettyÃ¢â¬ . Parents anywhere up to almost two hundred dollars for their daughter to be turned a Disney princess. These princess packages include anything from simple makeup to an elaborate, fully detailed princess outfit and getting to meet a Disney princess. (Disneyland) The need for Disney related propaganda has sparked discussion of whether Disney is Ã¢â¬Å"exploiting spiritualityÃ¢â¬ to sell its products according to Christopher Jamison, the Abbot of Worth in West Sussex. He brings the point that while the stories in the movies do have a moral message to take away from; it has in turn created an even more materialistic culture. Fr Jamison believes that stories have messages showing good triumphing over evil; he reasons that it is a ruse to convince people that they should buy Disney related products to be like those stories and characters in the films. Films like Sleeping Beauty and 101 Dalmatians have strong moral struggles, and they are also popular in terms of merchandise (Wynne-Jones). Fr Jamison strongly criticizes the Walt Disney Company for their selling tactics of their movie and character products to the public, Ã¢â¬Å"The message behind every movie and book, behind every theme park and T-shirt is that our childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s work needs DisneyÃ¢â¬ . The Walt Disney Company was founded in 1923 and has grown into one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest entertainment companies. To date it owns eleven theme parks around the world, and several television networks. They own networks like ABC, ABC Family, ESPN, ESPN2, and the numerous Disney channels. In addition they have their Hollywood studios that have produced more than two hundred feature films, and have recently purchased Lucasfilm. (Wynne-Jones) While they are entertainment powerhouses, they are now seen as faces of many everyday household items. Disney related items include children foodstuffs like cereal or fruit snacks, to the ever popular Disney related clothing. Almost anything related to infant merchandise has some sort of Disney character on it whether it is clothing to diapers to pacifiers. The public is completely surrounded by the Disney franchise without even realizing it and it has become an engrained part of culture. People will say that these films are a major part of culture and that people are simply reading too far into these films. While this makes sense that it is just people simply overanalyzing these family oriented family films, but these films have truly affected the public in many different ways. The Disney films offer an escape from reality and open the door for imagination for the viewers. But even then the films carry such strong messages that can be taken too literally like to be a princess, one must have their Prince Charming otherwise they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be happy in life. This has led to children having these unrealistic expectations of how their life is going to play out like a fairytale. The Walt Disney Company started out so small in 1923 and has since turned into a multi-billion dollar global franchise. Who would have ever thought that a man making simple animation would turn into a global faucet? The Disney movies and franchise need to be careful and start taking into consideration the criticism about their role in media, society and the lives of the growing generations. They are the future, and they are filled with racial stereotyping, unrealistic body images, ageism, and the firm grip on society of a powerful, global corporation.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Introduction The qualitative and quantitative research methods are typically applied in the field of social research. There has been a lot of debate on the relative advantages between the two designs among researchers almost more than on any other issue of methodology. The quantitative research design encompasses methods which focus on numbers, that is, quantities. The data collected in this design is usually in numbers which are then analyzed using statistical and mechanical methods. This design is highly associated with the field of science such as in practical done in a laboratory (Gall et al 2003). On the other hand, qualitative design normally uses words to explain wider concepts that cannot be captured mathematically such as beliefs, feelings and intentions. The data collected in this design may be in form of words, field notes and transcripts. The data in this design cannot be understood mathematically (Timmons 2005). This article is an attempt to pinpoint what may be regarded as stark dif ferences and importance of each method. Quantitative Method This research involves use of questions whose options of response have been predetermined (Bogdan & Biklen 1992). This design of research employs the use of a large number of respondents. The measurement in this design must theoretically be objective, in numbers and statistically valid. Due to the large number of respondents, the sampling method used is random. Before carrying out the research, the researcher applies a statistical method using formulas to determine the size of the sample which when studied would give findings within acceptable limits. Researchers using this method generally agree that the sample sought should yield findings with 95% confidence interval or there... ..., Ã¢â¬ËOrigins of Randomization in Experimental DesignÃ¢â¬â¢. Journal of Special Issue on Experiment & Artifact, 79 (3), pp.427Ã¢â¬â451. Jick, T 1979, Ã¢â¬ËMixing Quantitative & Qualitative methods. Triangulation in actionÃ¢â¬â¢. Administrative Sciences Quarterly, 24, pp.602-611. Lather, P 1992, Ã¢â¬ËCritical frames in Educational ResearchÃ¢â¬â¢. Theory into Practice, 31(2), pp.87Ã¢â¬â99. Schostak, J 2006. Interviewing & Representation-Qualitative Research Projects Berkshire; Open University press. Spector, P 1981. Research Designs. Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences. London; Sage Publications. Timmons, S 2005. Qualitative & Quantitative Research. Web. 21 March 2015. http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/nmp/sonet/rlos/ebp/qvq/3.html. Walker, W 2005, Ã¢â¬ËThe strengths & weaknesses of research designs involving quantitative measuresÃ¢â¬â¢. Journal of Research Nursing, 10 (5), pp. 571-82
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
There are present many differences in the way of life between France and the United States of America; from the social structure to the job market, from the political atmosphere to the legislative structure; from the language to fashion and so on. The focus of my research paper is a comparative study of the system of education of the two nations; highlighting the individual traits of each and discussing the similarities and the differences between the two. I will focus on the following: Ã¢â¬ ¢ How the educational systems of France and the USA are alike and how they differ; Ã¢â¬â Similarities and differences between the French and American primary education; Ã¢â¬â Similarities and differences between French secondary and American high schools; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Approaches to educational reform undertaken by France and the U. S. An examination of these areas intends to offer a clearer insight to the French and American educational systems. Basic Differences between the French and American Systems From the origin of the two systems of education, to the policies governing teachers, the federal budget allocation for education; the dissimilarities are many. I will highlight the major differences between the two distinct systems. According to Ã¢â¬Å"Education in France,Ã¢â¬ 2006, in 2006, the French federal budget for education was $83 billion (or 64. 6 billion Euros) whereas the American budget was $69. 4 billion (Ã¢â¬Å"Education in America,Ã¢â¬ 2006). The Ministry of National Education is FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s largest employer, employing educators at every level Ã¢â¬â from elementary to professors, whereas in America, teachers are employed by district and professors directly by their respective College or University. There is no unified body, unlike the Ministry of National Education in France, which manages educator employment. French schools are comprised of four components: 1. Kindergarten or Maternelle, 2. Primary school or Ecole elementaire, 3. Junior High or College, and 4. High school or Lycee, American schools are generally divided into three or four parts, according to Cozic (1992): 1. Preschool and kindergarten 2. Junior high 3. High school FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy of education is essentially unlike that of the United States, as highlighted below, quoting Fraser (1963): Ã¢â¬Å"In 1957 the Ministry of National Education gave the following account of school organization in France: Ã¢â¬ËThe hierarchy of the three great branches, Primary, Secondary, and Higher, as conceived by the Constituent Assembly and built by Napoleon Ã¢â¬â to which was later added Technical Education Ã¢â¬â remains the basis of our school organization. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ French education is divided into three parts; basic American education is in effect branched into only two, primary and secondary, with the third component, higher education, is fast becoming a privilege, not enjoyed by too many students in the current era. The high school graduation rates also differ between the two nations. In 2001, it was estimated that 70% of American public high school students graduated (Greene & Forster, 2006). France was aiming to achieve 80% high school graduation rate. This seemingly small difference has significant consequences on the literacy levels of the nations, which then become evident in other areas, such as the employment rate, a nations technological or scientific level of advancement, higher education levels of a country (percentage of the population who has attended College or University). Differences in the Primary Educational Systems of France and USA Education at the primary level is highly stressed upon in both the countries. The principals and philosophy of education between both the nations is most similar at this stage in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s academic career than any other stage. Kindergarten and elementary school, or maternelle and ecole elementaire is viewed as a critical juncture in the life of a child. Attendance in kindergarten and maternelle is compulsory in both the countries; however parents chose to send their children at as young an age as possible Ã¢â¬â 3 or 4 being the average age of attendance. In France, preschool or maternelle is divided into three one-year periods. These are: 1. Petite section (age 3), 2. Moyenne section (age 4), and 3. Grande section (age 5). There exist also pre-maternelle institutions (or daycare centers), which parents often decide to send their children to (Lee& Sivell, 2000). Primary School Children of both France and the U. S. are required to attend primary schools. In France, a national mandate has been set which dictates the compulsory school attendance of all six year old children ( Education in France,Ã¢â¬ 2006). This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the case in America, where the policies differ between the states. A child can start at 5, or 6 depending on the educational laws in the state of residence. It is generally agreed however that children in both America and France should attend school as early as possible, which proves to be beneficial in the cognitive and learning development of a child; helps to develop their social skills and instills disciplinary values. Elementary School Elementary school attendance in both the nations is compulsory too. In America, this usually entails the duration between 6 years to 11 or 12, depending on the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s (of residence) policy on education. The elementary schooling system runs from 1st grade, 2nd grade, 3rd grade and so on in the American system. The sixth grade is included in the Elementary system in some state, while not in others. In France, however, due to the national guidelines on education, children begin ecole elementaire from the age of 6 to 10, in the duration of which they pass through five grades, cours preparatoire, cours elementaire premiere annee, cours elementaire deuxieme annee, cours moyen premiere annee and cours moyen deuxieme annee. In the early stages of elementary system (or ecole elementaire) of both the countries, one or two teachers are assigned to teach all the subjects, which too are very similar, including: Ã¢â¬ ¢ language, Ã¢â¬ ¢ history, Ã¢â¬ ¢ geography, Ã¢â¬ ¢ social studies, Ã¢â¬ ¢ math, Ã¢â¬ ¢ science, Ã¢â¬ ¢ art or music and Ã¢â¬ ¢ physical education Religious education is avoided at this level in France and in America only a very few Elementary schools provide religious courses. High School (or Lycee) methodology While the teaching philosophy and methods between both the countries are unique, they fundamentally serve similar purpose: equipping students with a solid educational base to prepare them for their futures. The differences between the French secondary schooling system (college, and lycee) and the American junior high and high school are many. There exist similarities too Ã¢â¬â both systems require attendance (although in France no attendance is required after the age 16). In both systems, school selection is based on the area of residence and in both nations parents can pay a little more and educate their children privately. In the American secondary system, middle or junior high is the gap of 2 or 3 years between elementary and high school. In France, however, middle school or college normally begins in grade 6, denoted as 6e, at 11 years of age. This lasts four years, going down to grade 3e when the students are about 14. Grade 2e follows, and begins the high school (lycee), a three year period, ending with their last year or terminale. In the American system, students commence junior high either at the 6th Grade (age 12) or the 7th Grade (age 13), staying at this stage for 2-3 years and then moving on to Grade 9 (or High School) around the age of 15 (Urdan, 2001, p. 112). This phase extends to four years, ending at the completion of the 12th Grade. Another major dissimilarity between the two systems is that U. S. students are usually required to take standardized tests as soon as the Grade 6, including the SATs or ACTs occasionally during middle and high school. In France, students can take the standardized tests, or the baccalaureat after the completion of their schooling, to help determine what route theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll take after lycee. The French baccalaureat is the equivalent of the U. S. high school diploma, only difference being that French students have to clear specific tests to acquire their bac (as it is called. Also, students may decide not to take the bac, since it is Ã¢â¬Å"in law more an exam for entrance into university than a lycee completion examÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"BaccalaureatÃ¢â¬ 2006). A notable aspect of the French lycee is that students are provided the opportunity to specialize in particular courses the last few years of high school. Both the U. S. and French secondary systems require student attendance, but students in France are obliged to attend only till the age of 16. After that certain exams are to be undertaken which decide what courses the student will take for the rest of his/her schooling. Students who do well on these examination are given a chance to attend a lycee to study for the baccalaureat till they are 18 years old. Vocational Courses offer those students a shortened study period of two years who donÃ¢â¬â¢t score well on the entrance tests. That is considered one of the strengths of the French system. Instead of isolating the vocational branch, they amalgamate it within the secondary schooling system, which is encouraging for students to not only learn about other areas within their current educational system, but to remain with their peers too. Regarding the courses, French students are permitted only a restricted number of options for the path they choose to take. They are restricted to a few courses and the number of electives they can take are very few. American students, on the other hand, arenÃ¢â¬â¢t restricted as such. Most schools permit their students to take electives, provided they fulfill certain pre-requisites and the extra courses will eventually help them lead up to a diploma. French students who donÃ¢â¬â¢t do well on the in 2nde grade exams can prepare for for Brevet dÃ¢â¬â¢Enseignement Professionel (BEP Ã¢â¬â a certification in teaching), or Certificat dÃ¢â¬â¢Aptitude Professionelle (CAP Ã¢â¬â a certificate of professional aptitude). Both these are easily adaptable to earn the student a Ã¢â¬Å"baccalaureat professionel,Ã¢â¬ which, although not as esteemed as a baccalaureat in other areas, like as math or science, but would still be a huge advantage to students pursuing other areas (Guichard, 2000, p. 62). French students who decide to take the bac are given a choice between three Ã¢â¬Å"streamsÃ¢â¬ , all of which entail exclusive specializations and carry different Ã¢â¬ËweightsÃ¢â¬â¢. They are: 1. Scientifique (natural sciences), 2. Economique et sociale (a blend of sciences and literature with some economics and social studies), and 3. Litteraire (French language, geography, history, foreign languages and literature) (Ã¢â¬Å"Baccalaureat,Ã¢â¬ 2006). Educational Reform In the recent years, the topic of educational reform has been gaining momentum. The Bush administration set forth a Ã¢â¬Å"Leave No Child BehindÃ¢â¬ educational reform policy (McGuinn, 2006), with the aim of providing education to every child in the United States. Similarly, in France, educational reform often turns into political issue for the leaders, who bicker over sections of the core curriculum in regards to what is best for the nation. There is a significant disparity between reform in France and America. As stated earlier, France has a standardized curriculum for its public schools, whereas in the United States, the curriculum has to be set by the states and school districts. This is one of the reasons French educational reform is less extensive than the reform bills and acts passed in the U. S. to modify the educational system. Conclusion Taking into view all the ways in which education differs between France and the United States, it is debatable which country has the superior system. Each of the two countries have pros and cons. The question of which system is superior is irrelevant in this context. There is no one correct or incorrect way to educate a child; what works well for one student might fail for another. Selecting one structure over the other would be meaningless since both have their own set of accolades and setbacks.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Greetings Ms. Melissa Stauber, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve consistently been engaged in the national fight against educational disparities in the collegiate student of color population. Not only in my formal education and career history, but also my personal life has been committed to exploring solutions to problems created within dynamics of multiculturalism, identity and social injustice. This is why I know the Multicultural Academic Advisor position is the perfect next professional step growing my career in student services and deepening my commitment of upholding my fraternal credo to uplift through enlightenment education. My undergraduate education consisted of a combined media and cultural studies course history as an Afro-American Studies and Communication Arts major. This collective pair resulted in acquired cross-cultural relationship values and investments of personal identity sensitivity training including experiences with diverse people from different geographical, theological, and ideological backgrounds. Researchi ng Afro-American Studies and Media Studies simultaneously required me to engage in scholastic discussion exploring the implications and effects race, gender, sexual orientation, disability, age and appearance not only have on my personal worldview but also that of other people in my community. Courses and seminars such as the Student Intercultural Dialogues Course or Ethnic Fest Celebration, Multicultural Conference On Race Ethnicity, Race Gender In America orShow MoreRelatedThe Education Of The Human Society990 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesespecially for youth, should have 100 percent equality of education. In fact, however, not everyone is trusted equally based on my research. 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